Mathematics at University

High school mathematics classes are very different than those at university. Yes, mathematics classes at university are more difficult, but it is more than just that. When you learn mathematics at high school, all of the classes are about solving problems. The students are presented with the theory, the teacher demonstrates how to solve the problem using the theory and then the students try it for themselves.

What happens at university? Firstly, the classes are now lectures and so mathematics is now presented to the student rather than co-created with the student. Some problems are demonstrated, but often the lecture is mostly theory. The drawback is that the student must choose to put in the time in doing the problems outside of the class.

Some universities provide one hour of tutorial time per week or per two weeks. In these tutorials, often a postgraduate at the university will help the students in solving problems from a problem set. While this is welcomed, often the postgraduate is not as approachable as a high school teacher. The same can be said about the lecturer. Yes, you will find some lecturers who are only too happy to offer one-to-one time helping the students but this is not the norm. Most lecturers have their time taken up by research and they view classes as a secondary role of their job. This, of course, is not true for all third level institutes.

In addition to this, the mathematics courses themselves vary. For example, a student taking a course in statistics would be solving many more problems than a student taking pure algebra. Most questions in pure algebra are not “problem based” but rather “proof based”. That is, in statistical classes the student will need to solve a problem and in pure mathematical classes students would mostly be proving a result. The former is more reminiscent of high school mathematics classes.

My advice for students entering a mathematics course at a university would be to stay on top of the questions or problems the lecturer assigns. You will not have the same time in class you would have had at high school for solving problems. Mathematics is not a spectator sport; you must work at it. Mathematics is presented to students as something to “watch” but it is something to work at. And of course, if you find yourself having trouble in your course, then seek help straight away!


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Anti Aging Skin Care Product Secrets Revealed

Rule #1: Look beyond the claims of the productWhile advertising is a huge influence in the skin care market, it is important to be wise in dealing with the claims of any one particular product. If the product claims to reduce fine lines and eliminate wrinkles are these claims supported by reviews of real people who have used the product and seen positive results?One tip is to look for products that stimulate collagen production as over time, this can bring about dramatic and changes in the skin’s appearance. In addition, a product which contains a good moisturizer is crucial to relax skin tension and lock the moisture in.Rule #2: Don’t worry about the presence of any one ingredientWith so many competing creams on the market, there’s bound to be some degree of separation in which ingredients they all contain. Instead of getting fixated on which product a skin cream “must” contain, try to see what any individual product can bring to your skin care routine.It’s probably too much to ask for any one skin care product to be a “magic pill” for your skin, but by using a combination of products that attack the problem from different angles its easy to see how by using two or even three good skin care products your skin can easily benefit from the compound effect of all the extra nutrients and ingredients.Some really great nutrients for skin care include Silica, Zinc, Omega-3 acids, Selenium and Vitamin C and antioxidants.Rule #3: Avoid IrritantsOk, so while it can be good to have a range of essential nutrients in your skin care regime, there are definitely some skin care products that you would do well to avoid. Products that irritate the skin can actually increase wrinkles and weaken the skin against protection from environmental damage, such as UV from the sun’s rays, which is most definitely NOT what you want!The best advice here is to test. Even the slightest tingling or uncomfortable feeling on the skin resulting from using a product is the first sign of skin irritation. If this happens to you then my advice is strongly to stop using that product immediately! There are many alternatives on the market and the risks are simply not worth the cost.Once again check the product reviews and see what others are saying. This could save you a lot of trouble in the long run.Rule #4: Look for products that compliment your skin typeGetting to know your skin type can save you a lot of time in choosing the right products for you. This is actually a lot easier than you might expect. Basically, skin types can be broken down into four key groups: Normal, dry, oily and sensitive. There is also a combination skin type, although this is less common. Your skin will probably fall into one of these categories or have characteristics which make it more one than the other.(One quick tip here, if you are having trouble undermining your skin type, it could pay to to visit a dermatologist who can easily tell you which category your skin type fits into.)With this in mind, match the right skin product to your skin type and it will not only leave your skin feeling more fresh and nourished but will avoid any harmful influences that may occur from using the wrong product on your skin.In addition to this, remember to use the product on all areas of your skin that are exposed to the sun. It’s often overlooked that it’s not only the areas around the eyes and mouth that need attention. Your neck, hands and even parts of your body such as your knees and elbows may also benefit from some tender love and care!Rule #5: Don’t Expect Results OvernightThis goes back to the promises and claims you will see that accompany many skin care products. If I found a product that was a “miracle cure” for skin care I’d be absolutely thrilled about it! The truth is that a skin care product works in connection with your daily routine and is not really an isolated cure all by itself. You still need to protect yourself from the sun and keep on practising all the good habits which lead to healthy looking skin.That’s not to say that you can’t see tangible results and have great success with the right product. After all, skin care needn’t be difficult and it’s certainly possible to see positive results in a matter of weeks with the right product.Typically, in 2-3 weeks you should start to see some benefits to your skin, although for the best results a more prolonged use is recommended. Using the right product for a few months can literally transform the skin’s appearance.The benefits of a good anti aging skin care product include smoother and more radiant skin, a more even skin tone and less reduction of wrinkles and fine lines. Not only are these goals achievable but thanks to the recent developments in the cosmetics industry they are now also within anyone’s reach.The truth is that anti aging skin care needn’t be expensive or take lots of hard work. However, there is also a LOT of information out there and it can often be tricky to sort out what works from what doesn’t. So, to give you a head start, I’ve put together a free report of neat tips that can help you to have softer, smoother looking skin which feel great in the shortest time possible!First, head on over to How To Have Perfect Skin (that’s the blog) and sign up for my FREE skin care report. You’ll get access to all kinds of info, packed with skin care tips and advice for younger looking skin.Second, browse around the site for more skin care tips, techniques and reviews of and anti aging skin care products that have proven results.Third, take the plunge! By making healthy lifestyle choices and choosing the right product you could start to see significant results towards younger looking skin in less time than you might expect.

What Are The Greatest Changes In Shopping In Your Lifetime

What are the greatest changes in shopping in your lifetime? So asked my 9 year old grandson.

As I thought of the question the local Green Grocer came to mind. Because that is what the greatest change in shopping in my lifetime is.

That was the first place to start with the question of what are the greatest changes in shopping in your lifetime.

Our local green grocer was the most important change in shopping in my lifetime. Beside him was our butcher, a hairdresser and a chemist.

Looking back, we were well catered for as we had quite a few in our suburb. And yes, the greatest changes in shopping in my lifetime were with the small family owned businesses.

Entertainment While Shopping Has Changed
Buying butter was an entertainment in itself.
My sister and I often had to go to a favourite family grocer close by. We were always polite as we asked for a pound or two of butter and other small items.

Out came a big block of wet butter wrapped in grease-proof paper. Brought from the back of the shop, placed on a huge counter top and included two grooved pates.

That was a big change in our shopping in my lifetime… you don’t come across butter bashing nowadays.

Our old friendly Mr. Mahon with the moustache, would cut a square of butter. Lift it to another piece of greaseproof paper with his pates. On it went to the weighing scales, a bit sliced off or added here and there.

Our old grocer would then bash it with gusto, turning it over and over. Upside down and sideways it went, so that it had grooves from the pates, splashes going everywhere, including our faces.

My sister and I thought this was great fun and it always cracked us up. We loved it, as we loved Mahon’s, on the corner, our very favourite grocery shop.

Grocery Shopping
Further afield, we often had to go to another of my mother’s favourite, not so local, green grocer’s. Mr. McKessie, ( spelt phonetically) would take our list, gather the groceries and put them all in a big cardboard box.

And because we were good customers he always delivered them to our house free of charge. But he wasn’t nearly as much fun as old Mr. Mahon. Even so, he was a nice man.

All Things Fresh
So there were very many common services such as home deliveries like:

• Farm eggs

• Fresh vegetables

• Cow’s milk

• Freshly baked bread

• Coal for our open fires

Delivery Services
A man used to come to our house a couple of times a week with farm fresh eggs.

Another used to come every day with fresh vegetables, although my father loved growing his own.

Our milk, topped with beautiful cream, was delivered to our doorstep every single morning.

Unbelievably, come think of it now, our bread came to us in a huge van driven by our “bread-man” named Jerry who became a family friend.

My parents always invited Jerry and his wife to their parties, and there were many during the summer months. Kids and adults all thoroughly enjoyed these times. Alcohol was never included, my parents were teetotallers. Lemonade was a treat, with home made sandwiches and cakes.

The coal-man was another who delivered bags of coal for our open fires. I can still see his sooty face under his tweed cap but I can’t remember his name. We knew them all by name but most of them escape me now.

Mr. Higgins, a service man from the Hoover Company always came to our house to replace our old vacuum cleaner with an updated model.

Our insurance company even sent a man to collect the weekly premium.

People then only paid for their shopping with cash. This in itself has been a huge change in shopping in my lifetime.

In some department stores there was a system whereby the money from the cash registers was transported in a small cylinder on a moving wire track to the central office.

Some Of The Bigger Changes
Some of the bigger changes in shopping were the opening of supermarkets.

• Supermarkets replaced many individual smaller grocery shops. Cash and bank cheques have given way to credit and key cards.

• Internet shopping… the latest trend, but in many minds, doing more harm, to book shops.

• Not many written shopping lists, because mobile phones have taken over.

On a more optimistic note, I hear that book shops are popular again after a decline.

Personal Service Has Most Definitely Changed
So, no one really has to leave home, to purchase almost anything, technology makes it so easy to do online.
And we have a much bigger range of products now, to choose from, and credit cards have given us the greatest ease of payment.

We have longer shopping hours, and weekend shopping. But we have lost the personal service that we oldies had taken for granted and also appreciated.

Because of their frenetic lifestyles, I have heard people say they find shopping very stressful, that is grocery shopping. I’m sure it is when you have to dash home and cook dinner after a days work. I often think there has to be a better, less stressful way.

My mother had the best of both worlds, in the services she had at her disposal. With a full time job looking after 9 people, 7 children plus her and my dad, she was very lucky. Lucky too that she did not have 2 jobs.